- Plural of quality
Quality in everyday life and business,
engineering and manufacturing has a
interpretation as the non-inferiority, superiority or
This is the most common interpretation of the term.
Many different techniques and concepts have
evolved to improve product or service quality, including
, Six Sigma
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, quality
s (ISO 9000
others) and continuous
The meaning for the term quality has developed
over time. Various interpretations are given below:
9000 - "Degree to which a set of inherent characteristic
Sigma - "Uniformity around a target value"
- (Philip B.
Crosby in the 1980s)- "Conformance
to requirements". The difficulty with this is that the requirements
may not fully represent customer expectations; Crosby
treats this as a separate problem.
M. Juran).- "Fitness for use". Fitness is defined by the
- (Noriaki Kano
and others)- A two-dimensional model of quality. The quality has
two dimensions: "must-be quality" and "attractive quality". The
former is near to the "fitness for use" and the latter is what the
customer would love, but has not yet thought about. Supporters
characterize this model more succinctly as: "Products
that meet or exceed customers' expectations".
M. Weinberg)- "Value to
Pirsig)- The result of care.
Edwards Deming)- "Quality and the Required Style of Management"
1988 See http://www.deming.org/. "Costs go
down and productivity goes up, as improvement of quality is
accomplished by better management of design, engineering, testing
and by improvement of processes. Better quality at lower price has
a chance to capture a market. Cutting costs without improvement of
quality is futile."
Taguchi). Taguchi's definition of quality is based on a more
comprehensive view of the production system, and he relates Quality
(or, more precisely, the lack of it) to "The loss a product imposes
on society after it is shipped".
- One key distinction to make is there are two common
applications of the term Quality as form of activity or function
within a business. One is Quality Assurance which is the
"prevention of defects", such as the deployment of a Quality
Management System and preventative activities like FMEA. The other
is Quality Control which is the "detection of defects", most
commonly associated with testing which takes place within a Quality
Management System typically referred to as Verification and
American Society for Quality
"a subjective term for which each person has his or her own
definition. In technical usage, quality can have two meanings:
- the characteristics of a product or service that bear on its
ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.
- a product or service free of deficiencies."
The quality of a product or service refers to the
perception of the degree to which the product or service meets the
customer's expectations. Quality has no specific meaning unless
related to a specific function and/or object. Quality is a
perceptual, conditional and somewhat subjective attribute.
The dimensions of quality refer to the attributes
that quality achieves in Operations
- Quality supports dependability
- Dependability supports Speed
- Speed supports Flexibility
- Flexibility supports Cost.
- Quality ↔ Dependability ↔ Speed ↔ Flexibility ↔ Cost
In the manufacturing industry it is commonly
stated that “Quality drives productivity.” Improved productivity is
a source of greater revenue
opportunities and technological advances. Most discussions of
quality refer to a finished part, wherever it is in the process.
Inspection, which is what quality insurance usually means, is
historical, since the work is done. The best way to think about
quality is in process control. If the process is under control,
inspection is not necessary.
However, there is one characteristic of modern
quality that is universal. In the past, when we tried to improve
quality, typically defined as producing fewer defective parts, we
did so at the expense of increased cost, increased task time,
longer cycle time, etc. We could not get fewer defective parts and
lower cost and shorter cycle times, and so on. However, when modern
quality techniques are applied correctly to business, engineering,
manufacturing or assembly processes, all aspects of quality -
and fewer defects/errors and cycle time and task
time/productivity and total cost, etc.- must all improve or, if one
of these aspects does not improve, it must at least stay stable and
not decline. So modern quality has the characteristic that it
benefits, not OR-based benefits.
The most progressive view of quality is that it
is defined entirely by the customer or end user and is based upon
that person's evaluation of his or her entire customer experience.
The customer experience is the aggregate of all the touch points
that customers have with the company's product and services, and is
by definition a combination of these. For example, any time one
buys a product one forms an impression based on how it was sold,
how it was delivered, how it performed, how well it was supported
qualities in Catalan: Qualitat
qualities in Czech: Kvalita
qualities in Danish: Kvalitet
qualities in German: Qualität
qualities in Spanish: Calidad
qualities in Basque: Kalitate
qualities in Persian: کیفیت
qualities in French: Contrôle de qualité
qualities in Croatian: Kvaliteta
qualities in Indonesian: Kualitas
qualities in Italian: Qualità
qualities in Hebrew: איכות
qualities in Latvian: Kvalitāte
qualities in Hungarian: Minőség
qualities in Macedonian: Квалитет
qualities in Dutch: Kwaliteit (eigenschap)
qualities in Japanese: 品質
qualities in Norwegian: Kvalitet
qualities in Norwegian Nynorsk: Kvalitet
qualities in Polish: Jakość
qualities in Portuguese: Qualidade
qualities in Russian: Качество
qualities in Simple English: Quality
qualities in Slovak: Kvalita (akosť)
qualities in Finnish: Laatu
qualities in Swedish: Kvalitet
qualities in Ukrainian: Якість
qualities in Chinese: 品质